|SUMMARY||1.0 INTRODUCTION||2.0 CAVE/KARST ISSUES RELATED TO FORESTRY ACTIVITIES|
|3.0 PRELIMINARY CAVE/KARST LITERATURE SEARCH||4.0 CAVE/KARST WORKERS||5.0 TOWARDS A STRATEGY FOR ASSESSING CAVE/KARST ISSUES|
|5.2 CAVE/KARST INVENTORY PROCEDURES||5.3 RESEARCH PROJECTS||5.4 CAVE/KARST AWARENESS AND TRAINING|
|6.0 CONCLUSIONS||7.0 REFERENCES||8.0 COMPANY PROFILE|
A preliminary problem analysis of cave/karst issues related to forestry activities on Vancouver Island was carried out. The primary objectives of this work were determine the scope of (scientifically-based) cave/karst issues, and to provide a workable strategy for their further assessment and study.
The principal issues deal with: karst geology and hydrology, recreation and caving, cave/karst biology, karst soils and forest growth, fisheries, forest harvesting and road construction, and cave archaeology and palaeontology.
A literature and internet search of relevant cave/karst material was completed to provide background information for these issues.
Preliminary lists of workers involved with forestry and cave/karst management were also compiled. Options were provided for the formation of an integrated team to further address and study the cave/karst issues. One favoured option considers the formation of Cave/Karst Advisory Team which could be comprised of representatives from the Ministry of Forests, other government agencies, forest companies, and scientists.
The purpose of this team could be: to address specific cave/karst issues, to set goals for a detailed scientific study by a Cave/Karst Research Panel and to develop or evaluate Forest Renewal BC proposals. The Karst Research Panel, comprised of cave/karst specialists, would complete a detailed scientific study of the cave/karst issues over a specified time, and provide the impetus and direction for the further studies.
The general goals and responsibilities of the Karst Advisory Team and Karst Research Panel could include: the development of karst assessment and management guidelines for forest harvesting and road construction; a review of cave/karst inventory methods; the development of research projects to assist in the understanding of cave/karst systems; the development of a cave/karst awareness and training program for forest workers; and the compilation of an ongoing database for cave/karst information.
The primary objectives of Phase I of the problem analysis were determine the scope of the scientifically-based cave/karst issues on Vancouver Island, and to provide a workable strategy for their investigation and study. It is not anticipated that this present work will provide answers for specific cave/karst problems, but rather that it will provide a broad framework within which some of these issues can be addressed.
Recent work carried out on Vancouver Island to address some the karst, as opposed to merely cave(2) issues includes:
Literature Review of Cave and Karst Management in Forest Environments, Blackwell & Associates, 1995.
Cave Management Guidebook, Forest Practice Code of B.C., 1995.
1:250,000 Cave/Karst Potential Maps for the Vancouver Forest Region, Terra Firma Geoscience Services, 1994.
Industrial forest operations and their effects on cave and karst resources of Vancouver Island. Scheffer, 1993.
Impacts of primary deforestation upon limestone slopes in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Harding and Ford, 1993.
Stewardship of Cave and Karst Resources in British Columbia, Runka, 1992
(2) The cave/karst issues examined arc primarily scientific in nature and do not deal with management policy. However, it is realized that any guidelines developed from these scientific issues will at some stage have to be integrated into management policy.
(3) The usage of the terms "cave" and "karst" can lead to some confusion, as both are closely interconnected in a physical sense. In limestone rock "caves" are generally considered as natural near surface or subsurface openings that are large enough for a person to enter. While, "karst" on the other hand is considered as the whole terrain or topography that has formed from the dissolution of limestone and includes all surface and subsurface features; from surface epikarst to sinkholes, caves and underground drainage.
To date only limited field-based research appears to have been carried out for some of the issues that are associated with cave/karst terrain on the island (see Section 2.0). A more detailed study of the cave/karst issues would provide some of the basic information from which management guidelines for the cave/karst resources could be developed. Available publications and information related to cave/karst terrain, both on Vancouver Island and elsewhere, are included in the bibliography at the rear of the report.
The general Terms of Reference for this project are outlined in Phase I of a proposal submitted to the Vancouver Forest Region by Terra Firma Geoscience Services (see above). The Terms of Reference and project details were further discussed and refined during an informal meeting with Hal Reveley and Ken Fairhurst of the Vancouver Forest Region on March 22, 1996. The Terms of Reference are as follows:
Determine the scope of cave/karst issues that are related to forestry activities on Vancouver Island.
Complete a rapid reconnaissance of available cave/karst literature and examine internet sources.
Initiate the development of a digital database for cave/karst information.
Develop a contact list for the prime "players" or workers involved with cave/karst resources and management.
Provide a preliminary framework for the next stages of the study.
At least 4% of Vancouver Island's land surface (1,200 km3 of 32,100 km3) is known to be underlain by cave/karst terrain (Griffiths, 1991). Most of this cave/karst terrain occurs within the massive limestone units of the Quatsino and Mount Mark Formations. Regional (1 :250,000 scale) cave/karst mapping of Vancouver Island (Stokes, 1995) has indicated other rock formations (e.g., Parson's Bay, Harbledown Formations) also potentially contain limestone and cave/karst terrain. Published information on specific cave/karst geology is limited in terms of surface and subsurface cave/karst characteristics and controls (e.g., bedrock structure), glacial effects, and age of formation. A knowledge of these geological factors is crucial for an understanding of the overall processes of the cave/karst development. Many of the surface features present on the island (e.g., rock bridges, disappearing streams, dolines) are unique landform structures (Griffiths, 1991). However, there is presently no well accepted method for either assessing or managing these features.
In general, the hydrological processes of karst terrain can be considered as distinctive from those of non-karst terrain. In non-karst terrain, surface runoff contributes to both overland flow into streams and recharging of groundwater systems. In karst terrain surface runoff is directed almost immediately into subsurface flow and groundwater systems with minimal overland flow. Forestry activities over sensitive karst areas can potentially alter these subsurface hydrological systems by changing the directions and amounts of water infiltration and flow, and by contributing additional amounts of sediment, organic debris, and chemical contaminants (Kiernan, 1990). Once these materials enter into subsurface conduits they are likely to be transported to discharge streams or springs, with only limited potential for trapping or filtering (Aley et al., 1993). Information on the characteristics and extent of the karst hydrological systems can be obtained from the mapping of recharge and discharge areas in conjunction with groundwater tracing. This information will assist in evaluating the potential impacts of karst sub-surface flow on other resources (e.g., fish-bearing creeks or community water supplies).
Significant recreational caving on Vancouver Island has been ongoing since the 1960's (Griffiths, 1991). Since that time consultations between caving groups, Ministry of Forests and the forest industry have continued to address issues such as: cave inventories, cave access, cave safety, and cave preservation and management. A series of draft publications were developed by the Ministry of Forests to address some of these issues (e.g., Cave Management Guidebook and Cave/Karst Management Handbook). It is anticipated that the protection of caves for recreational purposes will be ongoing as forest activities proceed.
Cave/karst terrain is known to sustain distinctive flora and fauna, both above and below ground (Baichtal et al. 1995; Chapman, 1993). Above ground the soils on limestone substrate provide distinctive growing sites for trees, shrubs and plants (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994). A variety of mammals potentially utilize the near surface openings for shelter and habitats (e.g., bats, racoons, bears and deer), while other animals have adapted themselves to cave dwelling as troglobites (e.g., salamanders, amphipods). Two related studies on Vancouver Island include one on an endangered bat species in Weymer Cave (Davis, 1995), and the discovery of a new troglobitic amphipod (Holsinger and Shaw, 1987). Both studies have important scientific implications in terms of understanding cave ecosystems, animal habitats and troglobite evolution.
Soils in karst terrain pose some specific concerns when dealing with issues of soil erosion, tree growth, and regeneration. In general, it is recognised that karst terrain is very productive for tree growth, due to a combination of nutrient rich soils, good drainage, and sound rooting. In lowland areas some of the most productive tree growing sites (for red cedar and spruce) have developed on karst terrain covered with glacial materials (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994). A soil erosion and revegetation study was carried out on forested karst and non-karst areas in the Benson Valley of Vancouver Island (Harding and Ford, 1993). This study indicated that soil erosion losses were much more severe on karst and that tree regeneration was much slower. Typically, soils eroded from well developed karst slopes can be transported by surface runoff into epikarst depressions (or sub-surface conduits) and moved away from growing sites (Kiernan, 1990). Successful regeneration is more likely to occur on karst slopes where the soil cover is thicker, the epikarst is less developed, and where less disturbance has occurred during harvesting. Further studies in other karst areas of Vancouver Island are needed to fully assess and document these soil erosion and tree regeneration issues.
In Southeast Alaska there is a positive correlation between waters derived from karst terrain and the fish productivity of creeks (Swanson, 1993). This correlation is expected to hold true for the karst terrain and fish streams of Vancouver Island. The principal ways in which karst terrain can enhance fish productivity are by: carbonate buffering of waters (particular if waters are from an acidic source), creating cool and more even water temperatures, promoting more numerous and diverse aquatic insects, providing protective sites for fish breeding and shelter, and encouraging greater nutrients, algae and moss growth (Baichtal et al. 1995). The extent to which these caves and karst systems influence the fish habitats of Vancouver Island has yet to be fully explored and addressed.
Forest harvesting and road construction practices can significantly damage cave/karst terrain by: infilling caves and sinkholes with logging debris, altering surface runoff conditions, increasing soil erosion, and shattering shallow cave roofs (Kiernan, 1990; Harding and Ford, 1993; Lichon 1993; Baichtal, 1995). Other concerns include the redirection of road runoff into sinkholes or recharge streams, and the location of quarry sites in sensitive karst areas (Aley et al. 1993). Cave Management Guidelines of the Forest Practice Code of BC are now in place for protecting the more significant cave systems and entrances. However, the guidelines are less specific when dealing with surface karst features or karst hydrological systems. Examples of guidelines for managing surface karst, karst hydrology and other cave/karst issues in temperate forested areas include those of Southeast Alaska (Baichtal et al., 1995) and Tasmania (Kiernan, 1993). Some or portions of these guidelines maybe appropriate for the forest harvesting and road construction practices on Vancouver Island. However, further study is needed to determine their applicability, particularly in light of the differences in karst geology/hydrology, forest ecosystems, harvesting methods, social-economic values, and forest policy.
Well preserved and fossilized animal bones (e.g., fish, grizzly bears, deer) have been found within many cave systems of southeast Alaska (Baichtal et al. 1995; Heaton and Grady, 1993). Similar finds are known to exist within the cave systems of Vancouver Island (e.g., marmots). It is also likely that palaeobotanical (fossilized plant) materials are present within these cave systems. Palaeontological finds from Southeast Alaska have confirmed the animal use of cave back to approximately 40,000 years B.P. (Baichtal et al. 1995). The study of these fossilized materials provides important scientific information for both animal and plant evolution, and for past climatic and glacial histories.
Caves on Vancouver Island, particularly littoral caves, may have been used as habitats or burial sites for past inhabitants. Research from Southeast Alaska (Carlson, 1993) has confirmed some of these caves were used as rock shelters. Recent archaeological and palaeotological studies from the same area (Autrey and Baichtal, 1992; Dixon et al. 1992, Carlson, 1994) have assisted in the investigation of human migration theories into North America The presently favoured theory suggests that the west coast of North America was ice free during the last glaciation (approximately 10,000 years B.P.) and allowed for coastal migration of humans from the Bering Strait 'land-bridge' rather than by an inland ice-free corridor. Some of the caves on Vancouver Island may also have considerable spiritual significance to First Nation Bands.
In general, the bulk of the referenced material encountered during the literature search deals with karst hydrology, the contamination of karst aquifers and groundwater tracing. Information of the management of forests in cave/terrain is mainly confined to Alaskan or Australian sources. Specific details that deal with issues of cave/karst terrain, fisheries and silviculture appear limited. Literature on cave/karst issues specific to Vancouver Island and for the rest of B.C. were categorized under two separate headings.
A brief examination of the potential internet resources was also carried out, and indicated a considerable amount of data available on caves and karst, particularly with respect to hydrology. Examples of some of the interesting WWW (World Wide Web) homepage sites encountered include:
As a next step the cave/karst bibliography could be organized into a digital database with a search engine that is able to retrieve information by either author, title or subject. A possible option would be to incorporate the cave/karst bibliography into a Ministry of Forest homepage for general information purposes. This homepage could have a cover page describing some of the cave/karst issues, which could then be linked to details on particular research studies, publication references or abstracts, and other related homepage sites (such as shown in the examples above).
1997 Cave Management Symposium (http://www.halcyon.com/samara/ncms97/)
The Karst Waters Institute (http://www.uakron.edu/geology/kwi.html)
TABLE 2 -
PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE CAVE/KARST WORKERS IN B.C.
PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE CAVE/KARST WORKERS IN B.C.
|Paul Griffiths||John Pollock|
|Charlie Cornfield||Blll Marshall|
|Tom Hall||Reid Robinson|
|Martin Davis||Richard Hebda|
|David Nagorsen||Bob Craven|
|Laura Fribs||Jacques Marc|
|Doug Herchmer||Phil Whitfield|
Note: This table provides a preliminary list of some of the cave/karst workers in B.C that are presently known to the author. It is anticipated that further names could be added to this list.
TABLE 3 -
Preliminary LIST OF CAVE/KARST WORKERS (WITH FORESTRY RELATED EXPERTISE)
Preliminary LIST OF CAVE/KARST WORKERS (WITH FORESTRY RELATED EXPERTISE)
|James Baichtal||Derrick Ford|
|Thomas Aley||Catherine Alley|
|William White||David Culver|
|Janet Herman||Thomas Kane|
|John Mylroie||Bill Elliot|
|Ralph Ewers||Arthur Palmer|
Note: This table provides a list of some of the cave/karst workers outside B.C that are involved in forest-related studies, and are known to the author. It is anticipated that further names could be added to this list.
be addressed include the differences in social-economic values and government forest polices between BC and these other countries.
In order to fully assess the range of cave/karst issues related to forest activities on Vancouver Island it is apparent that a wide spectrum of expertise is needed to carry out the more detailed and comprehensive study indicated in Section 1.0. This type of expertise requires not only a local understanding of forest and terrain conditions, but also a broad range of academic and research experience. No one person is likely to have all these credentials; therefore an integrated team approach is required. This team should include personnel experienced in cave/karst and forest management, recreational caving, as well as the fields of cave/karst geology, hydrology, biology, palaeontology, and archaeology.
Examples of possible options for the formation of a team or panel to study the cave/karst issues on Vancouver Island could include:
Some of the possible aims for this team could be:
To provide advice on specific cave/karst issues and sites, ii) to set goals and deadlines for a comprehensive cave/karst study and organize the formation of a Karst Research Panel. iii) to assist in the development and evaluation of cave/karst-related Forest Renewal B.C. proposals
The goals and aims for the Karst Advisory Team should be reviewed and more fully identified following its formation. Changes to some of the ideas proposed in this report are anticipated.
The purpose of a Karst Research Panel, comprised of cave/karst experts and specialists, would be complete a regional scientific study of cave/karst issues on Vancouver Island over a specified time period. This panel study would provide both the impetus and direction for further studies, and as well rapidly identify and prioritize the problem issues. Following the completion of the scientific study, the Karst Advisory Team could assist in the implementation of the findings and recommendations provided by the Karst Research Panel.
Some of the immediate panel findings could be presented at the 1997 National Cave Symposium on 'Cave and Karst Management in Temperate Forest Environments'; which is to be held in October 1997 at Bellingham, Washington State. The Karst Advisory Team could also attend and provide advice to the biannual cave/karst meetings that are held on the island between caving groups, the Ministry of Forests, and forest companies.
The general goals and responsibilities of the Karst Advisory Team and Karst Research Panel are summarised in Table 4 and include:
The development of karst assessment and management guidelines for forest harvesting and road construction;
the review of cave/karst inventory methods;
the development of research projects to assist in the understanding of karst systems;
The development a cave/karst awareness and training program for forest workers; and
the compilation of an ongoing database for cave/karst information S.1 Karst Assessment and Management Guidelines
One of the principal aims of the Karst Advisory Team and Karst Research Panel could be the development of a set of standardised guidelines for both the assessment and management of cave/karst areas. The present cave management guidelines provide strategies for dealing with individual cave entrances and cave areas, but provides little protection for sensitive surface karst or subsurface groundwater systems and their potential impact on other resources.
In order to evaluate these systems and their impacts, a more detailed assessment is required. An example of such an assessment is outlined by Alley et al. (1993) and Baichtat et al. (1995) for Southeast Alaska, and includes: a detailed inventory of karst resources, the delineation of the karst hydrologic system and recharge area, and finally an assessment of karst vulnerability. By using this type of assessment the karst areas can be classified as having a low, moderate or high vulnerability.
Increasing management constraints and guidelines for timber harvesting and road construction are then typically applied from low to high vulnerability areas. This type of assessment procedure appears reasonable, but would have to be modified and adapted for the cave/karst and forestry conditions on Vancouver Island.
A possible option for carrying out these detailed karst assessments might be to use a format similar to the "Gully Assessment Procedure" of the Forest Practices Code, whereby cave/karst areas could be initially evaluated by forest workers or cavers to identify the low from moderate or high vulnerability areas. In some cases specialists (e.g., hydrologists, biologists) might then be retained in areas of more concern (e.g., moderate or high vulnerability areas or high impact sites).
Initially, it is suggested that guidelines for karst assessment and management be compiled as a separate volume to the Cave Management Guidelines, so as to avoid delays in publication of the latter. However, both publications should eventually be combined, because of the integrated nature of cave/karst systems.
A systematic surface inventory is then carried out of karst areas within, and adjacent to, the proposed developments. Any cave entrances or caves that are discovered are identified and classified. This cave/karst information is then retained by the Resource/Recreation Officer of each Forest District, who is responsible for informing the other agencies of the cave's existence. No standardized procedure is presently in place throughout the island to evaluate surface karst features, subsurface groundwater flow or their impact on other resources (see Section 5.1).
In parallel with the more detailed karst assessment that is required at a development level (see Section 5.1), it is suggested that regional mapping of the cave/karst areas be carried to out assess their potential sensitivity. This will provide a valuable tool for long term planning and management. Cave/karst potential mapping of Vancouver Island at a scale of 1 :2S0,000 has been carried out by Terra Firma Geoscience Services (Stokes, 1994 and Stokes, 1995). More detailed cave/karst potential mapping at scales of 1:50,000 and/or 1:20,000 could be compiled using airphotos, available geological and terrain maps, and reconnaissance field work. This could be combined with the existing cave inventory data and incorporated into a regional inventory system that would flag the more sensitive karst areas. This would be similar in some respects to the methods used for reconnaissance terrain stability mapping.
Examples of possible research projects could include:
An assessment of fish productivity and habitat within creeks supplied by karst waters.
An evaluation of the connections between surface water and groundwater systems for various karst systems.
An assessment of the geological characteristics and controls of karst formation on the limestone units of Vancouver Island.
An examination of the biochemistry and chemistry of karst waters and the controls of material transport (e.g., sediment, organics, contaminants)
An inventory and investigation of local troglobite habitats and evolutionary history.
An investigation of various groundwater tracing techniques for evaluating groundwater flow systems.
An assessment of various geophysical techniques (e.g., ground penetrating radar) to evaluate the openness of subsurface karst.
The aims of the training course would be to provide information to forestry workers and professionals on some of the following:
the geological, hydrological and biological processes involved with cave/karst systems,
the identification and recognition of cave/karst features and the methods of karst assessment, and
the potential management strategies for dealing with various types of karst.
The aims of this team could be: to provide advice on specific cave/karst issues, to set goals and deadlines for a comprehensive cave/karst study and organize the formation of a Karst Research Panel. and to assist in the development and evaluation of cave/karst-related Forest Renewal B.C. proposals. The Karst Research Panel, comprised of cave/karst experts and specialists, could complete a regional scientific study of cave/karst issues on Vancouver Island over a specified time period, and could provide both the impetus and direction for further studies.
The general goals and responsibilities of the Karst Advisory Team and Karst Research Panel could include:
the development of karst assessment and management guidelines for forest harvesting and road construction;
the review of cave/karst inventory methods;
the development of research projects to assist in the understanding of karst systems;
the development a cave/karst awareness and training program for forest workers;
and the compilation of an ongoing database for cave/karst information
Aley, T., Aley, C., Elliott, W.R., and Huntoon, P. 1993. Karst and Cave Resource Significance Assessment Ketchikan area, Tongass National Forest, Alaska. Final Report, prepared for Ketchikan Area of the Tongass National Forest. 79 p.
Autrey, J.T. and Baichtal, J.F. 1992. Evidence suggesting coastal refugia in southern southeast Alaska during the height of late Wisconsin glaciation. Alaska Anthropological Association l9TH Annual Meeting.
Baichtal, J.F., Swanson, D.N., and Archie, A.F. 1995. An ecologically-based approach to karst and cave resource management. National Cave Management Symposium XII, October 25-28, 1995, Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana.
Baichtal, J.F. 1995. Evolution of Karst Management on the Ketchikan area of the Tongass National Forest: Development of an ecologically sound approach. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium, Carlsbad, New Mexico. p. 190-202.
Blackwell, B.A. 1995. Literature review of management of cave/karst resources in Forest Environments. Unpublished report completed for Vancouver Forest Region. 19 p.
Carlson, R. 1993. Overview of archaeological resources associated with caves and rock shelters in southern southeastern Alaska Alaska Anthropological Assoc., 20th annual meeting. 12 p.
Carlson, R. 1994. Archaeology and palaeontology in the karst of southeast Alaska. American Caves 7(1):14-16.
Cave Management Guidebook. 1995. Draft publication. Forest Practises Code of British Columbia.
Cave/Karst Management Handbook. 1994. Draft Publication. Vancouver Forest Region.
Chapman, P. 1993. Caves and Cave Life. Harper-Collins Publishers. 219 p.
Davis, M. 1995. Weymer/Green Creeks Cave/Karst Inventory. BC Caver Magazine. Vol 9, #6.
Dixon, E.J., Marm, D.H., Edwards, M., Mason, O., Beget, J., and Cook, S. 1992. Prehistory and paleoecology of southeastem Alaska karst; A prospectus for interdisciplinary research. [to National Science Foundation]. 23 p.
Griffiths, P. 1991. A Resource User's Perspective on Cave Management. British Columbia Caver 5(3): 16-20.
Harding, K.A. and Ford, D.C. 1993. Impacts of primary deforestation upon limestone slopes in northem Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Environ. Geol. 21:137-143.
Heaton, T.H. and Grady, F. 1993. Fossil grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, offer new insights into animal dispersal, interspecific competition and age of deglaciation. Current Res. Pleistocene. 12:98-100.
Holsinger, J.R. and Shaw, D.P. 1987. Stygobromus quatsinensis. a new amphipod crustacean (Crangonyctidae) from caves on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, with remarks on zoogeographic relationships. Can. J. Zool. 65:2202-2209.
Karst Land Management Guidelines. Draft Publication; IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas.
Kiernan, K. 1990. Soil and Water Degradation in Carbonate Rock Terranes. Australian Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 3(4):26-33
Kiernan, K. 1993. Karst research and management of in the State Forests of Tasmania 10th Australasian Conference on Cave and Karst Management, 1993.
Lichon, M. 1993. Human impacts on processes in karst terranes, with special reference to Tasmania. Cave Science, Vol 20,, p S5-60.
Pojar, J. and MacKinnon, A. 1994. Plants of Coastal British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing. 527 p.
Runka, G.G. 1992. Stewardship of cave and karst resources in B.C.- a review of legislation, policy and management. Contract report to the Recreation Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests. 148 p.
Scheffer, J. 1993. Industrial forest operations and their effects on the cave and karst resources of Vancouver Island. Report prepared for the Ministry of Forests, Recreation Branch. 22 p.
Stokes, T.R. l995. Evaluation of Coastal British Columbia for potential cave and karst terrain: A regional rating system. Abstract in GAC-MAC Annual Meeting, Victoria, B.C. p A101.
Stokes, T.R. 1994. 1:250,000 cave/karst potential maps of the Vancouver Forest Region. Contract completed for the Vancouver Forest Region. Set of 10 maps.
Swanson, D. 1993. Preliminary report on current research into stream productivity of karst versus non-karst dominated streams. Forestry Sciences Lab., Juneau Alaska.
Dr. Stokes is familiar with the cave/karst issues and has been involved over the past three year with examining and recognising these features during terrain stability assessment work along the west coast of B.C. He has also recently completed two regional (1:250,000) cave/karst potential maps for the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Regions. A poster on the cave/karst mapping project for the Vancouver Forest Region was presented by Dr Stokes at the Geological Association of Canada Annual Conference in Victoria, May 1995.
To the Canadian Karst Resources and Issues site....